Now, I would like to give you a blessing, but first I want to ask you for a favour. Before the bishop blesses the people, I ask that you pray to the Lord so that he blesses me. - Pope Francis, 13 March 2013.
Habemas Papam! We have a new pope for the Catholic Church - and what a surprise it was for many of us when his name was read out in Latin by Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran. In fact, most of us were left scratching our heads as we tried to decipher the identity of the new man who will now head an institution of almost 1.3 billion adherents.
By now we have already learnt some of the public characteristics of this man from the extensive media coverage. He is for instance the first pope to be a Jesuit since he hails from the religious order of the Society of Jesus. He is the first pope from Latin America and we therefore no longer witness another Italian or European at the helm. He is also the first pope to adopt the name of Francis in homage to St Francis of Assisi, the founder of the Franciscan Order, who had an unswerving directness of purpose and an unfaltering sense of ideals and whose main traits included a deep solidarity with the poor and a love for animals and the environment. But let me add a fourth characteristic by pointing out that he is the first pope, too, with one lung since childhood.
So now that we have dispensed with the initial and headline-grabbing sound bites, perhaps it is time to look beyond the endearing charm and winning smile of the new Bishop of Rome in order to posit a tad more soberly on his relationship with - and therefore his impact upon - the Catholic Church.
• A first basic point one needs to highlight is that the Catholic Church is universal. One of the consequences of this universalism is that the issues affecting believers from one continent to another might be different. It is quite plausible, I would suggest, that the concerns of a man or woman in Africa or Latin America are not the same as those in Australia, North America, Europe or - more directly in the case of my own readership - the Middle East.
• However, despite his leaning, it is quite clear that Francis now faces an immense array of challenges left by his predecessor. In a nutshell, those include a shortage of priests, rising diversity and secularity in a West that increasingly sees the church as being out of touch (and therefore dabbles with different forms of faith, spirituality and religion, as well as non-religion), growing competition from Evangelical churches in the Global South, and the sexual abuse crisis that has severely undermined the moral authority of the church and tainted some of its priests.
• An enormous amount of hope, perhaps inflated in some ways, resides with this man. Those who support his doctrinal conservatism are reassured by the fact that he will not veer away from the teachings and decisions of his two predecessors John-Paul II and Benedict XVI. But those who look at his zeal for social justice as well as solidarity with the poor hope that he will prove to be more like Pope John XXIII (a man who spoke from the heart and who was more open and conciliar albeit also somewhat misunderstood), and that he will keep in mind the writings of the late Jesuit priest Martin Malachi who left the priesthood out of despair; or perhaps those of Swiss priest and theologian Hans Küng, or the late Cardinal Carlo Martini, who was also a fellow Jesuit and Archbishop of Milan.
• In his recent inaugural homily, the new pope captured the attention of many people when he spoke once again about his deep compassion for the poor and his stewardship of the environment. Equally powerful was his concluding quotation from St Matthew’s Gospel, where he paraphrased that the power of the church lies in its service and not its pomposity and said that this is what one must ultimately be judged on.
From all this it is clear that the new pope inherits a few realities and starts his papacy with a concern for renewed core principles. From the little we have seen or heard already, it appears that the tenderness Pope Francis manifests is, in fact, his strength; but also that his Jesuitical background endows him with sufficient craftiness and steel to do what it takes to help steer the Catholic Church forward on a number of fronts.
• One fundamental point is to tackle the largely Eurocentric Curia, the equivalent of the civil servants in any government, who are set in their own ways or who are in some respects dysfunctional. The key to reform, renewal and progress within the Church lies in his ability to transform the institution rather than allow himself to be transformed or coerced by it. Everyone is looking at him to see whether he will succeed in this task, where his recent predecessors vacillated, in order to give the church its broad diversity and openness.
• He should also urgently overhaul the Vatican Bank and usher in the transparency that the Moneyval Report of the Council of Europe as well as other institutions or individuals have called for over past decades.
• Hugely important to the Church as a whole, and perhaps telling of the way he moves forward, will be his ability to root out the culture of impunity or opaqueness that has surrounded the horrid cases of paedophilia and sexual / child abuse within the Church. The word ‘criminal’ best describes such acts and the new pope must not only continue but redouble the efforts of Benedict XVI in exposing and eradicating this culture, not least to reassure ordinary Catholics and a watching world of the underlying goodness of their institutions.
• Pope Francis might also look at the church structures and realise how under-represented lay people (and particularly women) are in the upper echelons of the church. I am not anticipating a revolutionary sense of renewal at this stage, whereby women will become priests overnight and priests will forsake their celibacy vows. But the question within an all-male clerical culture is whether or how “[t]here is neither male nor female. In Christ you are one” (Galatians 3:28)? Ability is not constrained by gender, and what I am praying for is an inevitable realisation that lay men and women are painfully absent from the Vatican higher structures - and certainly from an all-male and ageing Curia - despite the fact incidentally that women alone represent 70 per cent of all believers.
• As a Latin American who experienced the dirty war of Argentina during the junta years, and given his less Eurocentric culture, Pope Francis might also strive to underline the wider outreach of a universal church that is no longer Roman by geography or demography. This means, inter alia, that the new pope should part ways with Benedict XVI and encourage instead a sense of collegiality whereby all the bishops across all continents will have the authority to shepherd their flocks more ably and that the central hub of every decision will no longer lie in the slow machinery of the Vatican in Rome. Of course, this can only be achieved efficiently if the structures are made available for such a sense of collegiality.
• Finally, the pope should be open to the ecumenical nature of the Christian Church. He is the 265th successor to St Peter and that reality cannot be taken away from him. However, the Church of Christ goes well beyond Catholicism and it well behoves Francis to open bridges with the Orthodox Churches as well as with Protestant and Anglican Churches, as well as to strengthen the bonds of peace, and ease strains, with Judaism and Islam. After all, it was the first time since the schism of 1054 that the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I attended the inauguration of a new pope in Rome. And while we should bear in mind that this is a two-way street, was it not attributed to St Francis of Assisi that “Preach the Gospel, and only if necessary use words”?
• Within this ecumenism are the Christians, alongside their Muslims neighbours, of the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. They should not be forgotten or ignored as they undergo radical and challenging changes in their own countries. Rome should firmly stand on the side of dignity, fundamental freedoms and socio-economic justice and - not unlike Fr Paolo Dall’Oglio - lift up the faithful grassroots.
This is such a tall order that we may truly wonder if a man of 76 years can manage to initiate, let alone undertake this metanoia (conversion) and implement some of those substantive reforms. But it seems that Francis is already conscious that he has a short time to leave his fingerprints on the papacy (either before he dies or retires like his predecessor) and that he is therefore determined to see those changes through. As an American priest and a truly dear friend of mine wrote to me earlier this week: “It seems that the gentle breezes of change are wafting through our beloved Church”. Perhaps he is right. Time will tell.
In summary, what is required from the new pope today is more than an evocative name and a humble posture. Catholicism also needs someone like Pius V (1504-1572) at whose tomb Francis prayed on the day after his elevation - a disciplinarian whose housecleaning helped further what became known, not always enlighteningly, as the Counter Reformation (the change the Church sought in response to the European Reformation). The Vatican needs to revamp its topmost structures and put its own house in order to enable real corresponding renewal from below. ‘Do what I say, not what I do’, can be no longer.
For Francis to make these changes, he must contend with power centres within the Vatican that revolve around money, real estate and the distribution of resources as much as foreign policy, ideology and church doctrine. Beneath the pope, a handful of powerful cardinals preside over nine congregations that manage religious orders, global missionary work, the liturgy and the naming of bishops as well as twelve pontifical councils. And the most powerful administrator, after the pope himself, is his secretary of state who plays a critical role in guiding church affairs, setting the foreign policy agenda and controlling access to the pope. He will be the pivotal man to make or break any renewal, reform or collegiality.
This pope indubitably has talents and a charisma that he needs to apply to the whole church, to its men and women across all five continents. Those who do not believe in God or who are antagonistic to anything faith-centred will perhaps consider such thoughts to be lacking substance or veracity. I understand their standpoint. But for those, like me, who aspire to a divinely gifted transcendental shape and meaning to life, beyond the pressures of the here and now, the new pope can either help strengthen our faith or else subject it to more disillusionment. Yet for the believer, renewal - or its Arabic concept of tajdeed - is fundamental to all cycles of life.
A final thought: was it not the Blessed John Henry Newman who said once that, “To live is to change, and to be perfect is to have changed often.” Indeed, because what many unsure men and women seek in a religious institution today is not another leader issuing top-down edicts about the faith, but rather a new pope who trusts a renewed church.
* More on Pope Francis from Ekklesia: http://www.ekklesia.co.uk/PopeFrancis
© Harry Hagopian is an international lawyer, ecumenist and EU political consultant. He also acts as a Middle East and inter-faith advisor to the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of England & Wales and as Middle East consultant to ACEP (Christians in Politics) in Paris. He is an Ekklesia associate and regular contributor (http://www.ekklesia.co.uk/HarryHagopian). Formerly an Executive Secretary of the Jerusalem Inter-Church Committee and Executive Director of the Middle East Council of Churches, he is now an international fellow, Sorbonne III University, Paris, consultant to the Campaign for Recognition of the Armenian Genocide (UK), Ecumenical consultant to the Primate of Armenian Church in UK & Ireland, and author of The Armenian Church in the Holy Land. Dr Hagopian’s own website is www.epektasis.net Follow him on Twitter here: @harryhagopian